The first exhibits of the collection were received in 1921, when the Museum of War was established, but its formation as a separate collection started only in 1953. This collection is distinct in its specificity: it preserves the exhibits of different types and materials. The most distinctive exhibits date back to the Lithuanian Wars of Independence (1918-1920): the first military uniforms, the flags of regiments, and war trophies. Currently, the Collection of Historical Objects contains over 17,000 exhibits. The collection could be divided into several subcollections: uniforms and military equipment (from the beginning of the 20th century – to the 2000s and 2010s), flags, historical objects, and ethnography. In addition, these collections could be subcategorized further.

The Collection of Uniforms and Military Equipment preserves the uniforms of the Lithuanian Armed Forces and various foreign states: Poland, Latvia, Russia, Germany, Scandinavian countries, etc. A large part of the collection consists of Soviet uniforms.

The Collection of Flags contains a significant number of flags of various foreign states (1910s-1930s), the regiments of the Lithuanian Armed Forces (1918-1940), the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union (LŠS), and the present units of the Lithuanian Armed Forces and the National Defense Volunteer Forces (KASP).

The Collection of Historical Objects contains the objects from the interwar Lithuania, the things that belonged to famous public and cultural figures, chiefs of the Armed Forces and officers, and military and sports prizes of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union.

In the Ethnography Collection, the collection of Easter eggs (506 units) may be distinguished, which was collected by famous Lithuanian photographer and ethnographer Balys Burasas; in addition, it contains the collection of national costumes, which dates back to the period from the late 20th century to the 1930s, and the collection of sacral folk sculpture.