The Collection of Photographs of the Vytautas the Great War Museum contains 31,592 photographs and photocopies reflecting the historic development of the Lithuanian state and the Armed Forces from the end of the 19th century until these days. A part of the exhibits are the photocopies of manuscripts, drawings, engravings, and publications, which date back from the 16th to 19th centuries. The exhibits of the collection are catalogued according to historical periods and themes.

Lithuania under the rule of Tsarist Russia and Kaiser Germany (end of the 19th century – 1918). The thematic spectrum of the photographs from this period focuses on the struggle of the Lithuanian nation against the policy of Russification (a significant part of photographs consists of the portraits of book carriers) and the efforts to reestablish the state of Lithuania.

The First Republic of Lithuania (1918-1940). This is the most detailed period in the collection. The photographs cover various areas of activity of the Lithuanian State and the Armed Forces. The development of the Lithuanian Armed Forces is reflected particularly widely. Some photo albums are of impressive sizes, formats, and luxurious covers.

Lithuania during the years of occupations (1940-1990). The photographs of this period depict the first Soviet occupation and Sovietization (1940–1941), the German occupation (1941–1944), and the second Soviet occupation (1944–1990). The images disguised by the Soviet propaganda and ideology indirectly prove the destruction of the Lithuanian Armed Forces (1940–1941) and the postwar partisan fights (1944–1953).

The Second Republic of Lithuania (from March 11, 1990 to the present). The collection includes visuals about the Lithuanian National Defense System from the establishment of the Voluntary National Defense Service (January 17, 1991) and the re-establishment of the Lithuanian Armed Forces (November 19, 1992) to the contemporary modernized troops involved in the NATO collective defence system.